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Collaborating with AMT.
Funded by ESA and endorsed by SOLAS
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Download the AMT4CO2flux brochure, "Measuring CO2 exchange from space and sea".

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Publications by the AMT4CO2Flux team


Brewin, R.J.W., J. Pitarch, G. Dall'Olmo, H. van der Woerd, L. J., X. Sun, and G.H. Tilstone. 2023. Evaluating historic and modern optical techniques for monitoring phytoplankton biomass in the Atlantic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 10, 1111416. doi:10.3389/fmars.2023.1111416

Brewin, R.J.W., S. Sathyendranath, G. Kulk, M.-H. Rio, J.A. Concha, T.G. Bell, A. Bracher, C. Fichot, T.L. Frolicher, M. Galí et al. 2023. Ocean carbon from space: Current status and priorities for the next decade. Earth-Science Reviews, 240, 104386. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2023.104386

Ford, D.J., G.H. Tilstone, J.D. Shutler, V. Kitidis, K.L. Sheen, G. Dall'Olmo, and I.B.M. Orselli. 2023. Mesoscale eddies enhance the air-sea CO2 sink in the South Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 50 e2022GL102137. doi:10.1029/2022GL102137

Lin, J., Z. Lee, G.H. Tilstone, X.W. Liu, J., M. Ondrusek, and S. Groom. 2023. Revised spectral optimization approach to remove surface-reflected radiance for the estimation of remote-sensing reflectance from the above-water method. Optics Express 31 22964-22981. doi:10.1364/OE.486981

Pardo, S., G.H. Tilstone, R.J.W. Brewin, G. Dall'Olmo, J. Lin, F. Nencioli, H. Evers-King, T.G.D. Casal, and C.J. Donlon. 2023. Radiometric assessment of OLCI, VIIRS, and MODIS using fiducial reference measurements along the Atlantic Meridional Transect. Remote Sensing Environment 299 113844. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2023.113844


Ford, D., Tilstone, G., Shutler, J.D. Kitidis, V. 2022. Derivation of seawater pCO2 from net community production identifies the South Atlantic Ocean as a CO2 source. Biogeosciences, 19, 93-115. doi:10.5194/bg-19-93-2022

Ford, D., Tilstone, G., Shutler, J.D. Kitidis, V. 2022. Identifying the biological control of the annual and multi-year variations in South Atlantic air–sea CO2 flux. Biogeosciences, 19, 4287-4304. doi:10.5194/bg-19-4287-2022

Lin, J., Dall'Olmo, G., Tilstone, G.H., Brewin, R.J.W., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Evers-King, H., Casal, T., Donlon, C. 2022. Derivation of uncertainty budgets for continuous above-water radiometric measurements along an Atlantic Meridional Transect. Optics Express, 30(25): 45648. doi:10.1364/OE.470994

Valente, A., S. Sathyendranath, V. Brotas, S. Groom, M. Grant, T. Jackson, A. Chuprin, M. Taberner, R. Airs, D. Antoine, et al. 2022. A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version three. Earth System Science Data 14 5737-5770. doi:10.5194/essd-14-5737-2022

Yang, M., Bell, T.G., Bidlot, J.-R., Blomquist, B.W., Butterworth, B.J., Dong, Y., Fairall, C.W., Landwehr, S., Marandino, C.A., Miller, S.D., Saltzman, E.S. and Zavarsky, A. 2022. Global synthesis of air-sea CO2 transfer velocity estimates from ship-based eddy covariance measurements. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9: 826421. doi:10.3389/fmars.2022.826421



Brewin, R.J.W., Wimmer, W., Bresnahan, P.J., Cyronak, T., Andersson, A.J. and Dall'Olmo, G. 2021. Comparison of a Smartfin with an infrared sea surface temperature radiometer in the Atlantic Ocea. Remote Sensing, 13(5), art:841. doi:10.3390/rs13050841

Dong, Y., Yang, M., Bakker, D.C.E., Liss, P.S., Kitidis, V., Brown, I., Chierici, M., Fransson, A., Bell, T.G. 2021. Near-surface stratification due to ice melt biases Arctic air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(22): e2021GL095266. doi:10.1029/2021GL095266

Dong, Y., Yang, M., Bakker, D.C.E., Kitidis, V., Bell, T.G. 2021. Uncertainties in eddy covariance air-sea CO2 flux measurements and implications for gas transfer velocity parameterisations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21, 8089-8110. doi: 10.5194/acp-2021-120

Ford, D., Tilstone, G., Shutler, J., Kitidis, V., Lobanova, P., Schwarz, J., Poulton, A.J., Serret, P., Lamont, T., Chuqui, M., Barlow, R., Lozano, J., Kampel, M., Brandini, F. 2021. Wind speed and mesoscale processes drive net autotrophy in the South Atlantic Ocean. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 260, art:112435. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2021.112435

Tilstone, G., Pardo, S., Dall'Olmo, G., Brewin, R., Nencioli, F., Dessailly, D., Kwiatkowska, E., Casal, T., Donlon, C. 2021. Performance of ocean colour chlorophyll a algorithms for Sentinel-3 OLCI, MODIS-Aqua and Suomi-VIIRS in open-ocean waters of the Atlantic. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 260, art:112444. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2021.112444

Yang, M., Smyth, T.J. Kitidis, V., Brown, I.J., Wohl, C., Yelland, M.J., Bell, T.J. 2021. Natural variability in air-sea gas transfer efficiency of CO2. Scientific Reports. 11, art: 13584. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92947-w


Alikas, K., Vabson, V., Ansko, I., Tilstone, G., Dall’Olmo, G., Nencioli, F., Vendt, R., Donlon, C. and Casal, T. 2020. Comparison of above-water Seabird and TriOS radiometers along and Atlantic Meridional Transect. Remote Sensing, 12(10), art:1669. doi:10.3390/rs12101669


Holding, T., Ashton, I.G., Shutler, J.D., Land, P.E., Nightingale, P.D., Rees, A.P., Brown, I., Piolle, J.-P., Kock, A., Bange, H.W., Woolf, D.K., Goddijn-Murphy, L., Pereira, R., Paul, F., Girard-Ardhuin, F., Chapron, B., Rehder, G., Ardhuin, F. and Donlon, C.J. 2019. The FluxEngine air-sea gas flux toolbox: simplified interface and extensions for in situ analyses and multiple sparingly soluble gases. Ocean Science Discussions. doi: 10.5194/os-2019-45


Organelli, E., Dall’Olmo, G., Brewin, R.J.W., Tarran, G.A., Boss, E. and Bricaud, A. 2018. The open-ocean missing backscattering is in the structural complexity of particles. Nature Communications, 9, art: 5439. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07814-6


Dall’Olmo, G., Brewin, R.J.W., Nencioli, F., Organelli, E., Lefering, I., McKee, D., Röttgers, R., Mitchell, C., Boss, E., Bricaud, A. and Tilstone, G. 2017. Determination of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from underway spectrophotometry. Optics Express 25(24), A1079-A1095. doi: 10.1364/OE.25.0A1079


Brewin, R.J.W., Dall’Olmo, G., Pardo, S., van Dongen-Vogels, V. and Boss, E.S. 2016. Underway spectrophotometry along the Atlantic Meridional Transect reveals high performance in satellite chlorophyll retrievals, Remote Sensing of Environment, 183, 82-97. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.005



Related information

AMT website
AMT4SentinelFRM website

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Project partners

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The AMT4CO2Flux consortium is led by Plymouth Marine Laboratory and includes three partners as subcontractors: the University of Southampton, the Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Plouzane, France (IFREMER) and the University of Exeter.


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AMT4CO2Flux is funded by the European Space Agency.